Mircea Eliade

Credits

New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here:

  • Mircea Eliade  history

The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia:

Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed.

Навигация

Персональные инструменты

  • Вы не представились системе
  • Обсуждение
  • Вклад
  • Создать учётную запись
  • Войти

Пространства имён

  • Статья
  • Обсуждение

Варианты

Просмотры

  • Читать
  • Править
  • История

Ещё

Поиск

Чтение

  • Главная
  • Летопись
  • Новые статьи
  • Случайная статья

Созидание

  • Портал сообщества
  • Справка
  • Техподдержка
  • Статистика
  • Активность
  • Пожертвования
  • Сувениры
  • Свежие правки

Статьи к улучшению

  • Недостающие
  • Планируемые
  • Короткие
  • Сироты
  • Тупики
  • Незавершённые
  • С нехваткою иллюстраций
  • Недостающие шаблоны

Партнёры

Инструменты

  • Ссылки сюда
  • Спецстраницы
  • Версия для печати
  • Постоянная ссылка
  • Сведения о странице
  • Цитировать страницу
  • Просмотреть свойства

Доступность

Approach to religion

Eliade’s scholarly and literary approaches to myth, symbol, and religion are defined by several key assumptions and principles. First, he argued for “the irreducibility of the sacred.” He believed that religious phenomena must be understood as uniquely and irreducibly religious, as expressing meaning on a religious plane of reference. Eliade frequently criticized those who attempted to reduce religion to psychological, social, economic, historical, or other nonreligious phenomena. According to him, they failed to do justice to the unique, irreducible essence of religious experience: the sacred.

Second, the religious can be distinguished from the secular because it expresses a universal, essential structure that Eliade called the “dialectic of the sacred and the profane,” or the “dialectic of hierophanies” (manifestations of the sacred in the world). This dialectic involves the experience of the transcendent in which the sacred (infinite, eternal, nonhistorical) paradoxically manifests itself through ordinarily profane (finite, temporal, historical) phenomena. What is paradoxical, illogical, and incomprehensible to the rational, conceptual, natural, scientific, secular, human understanding is how a transcendent, perfect God can appear in ordinary human and worldly forms; how what is absolute and eternal can be expressed in limited words, in trees and rivers, in historical beings and animals, and in dreams and other human experiences. In this sense, the supreme Christian mystery of the Incarnation, in which God assumed human form, is no more paradoxical than the universal dialectical structure of all religious manifestations.

Eliade’s approach is also grounded in his claim that there are essential, universal, coherent, symbolic systems that provide the framework for interpreting religious meaning. Religious language is symbolic, always pointing beyond itself to transcendent sacred meanings. Eliade understood human beings as religious beings (homo religious) and as symbolic beings (homo symbolicus). Human beings necessarily use language to express themselves, and it is the capacity to express things with symbolic language that allows humans to experience deeper meanings and to unify experiences in terms of coherent, symbolic, structural worlds of meaning. As symbolic, religious beings, humans were also viewed by Eliade as “mythic beings.” Myths are symbolic, sacred narratives of what took place in primordial, mythic time. They provide exemplary sacred stories that allow religious people to make sense of and deal with their existential crises, such as experiences of our historical and temporal limitations, of senseless suffering and arbitrary and tragic death, and of alienation and the lack of deep meaning in our lives. Myths are reenacted through rituals and other sacred activities. According to Eliade, (cosmogonic myths) and other myths of origins provide the most significant lessons for religious people. They provide accounts of the primordial time; describe the transformations that explain the nature of human existence in the world; and help humans return to the sacred origins, overcome sin, and become renewed by participating in the primordial sacred fullness of being.

A sampling of critical works about Eliade

  • Allen, Douglas. 2002. Myth and Religion in Mircea Eliade. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415939399
  • Carrasco, David and Law, Jane Marie (eds.). 1991. Waiting for the Dawn: Mircea Eliade in Perspective. Boulder: University Press of Colorado. ISBN 0870812394
  • Culianu, Ioan Petru. 1978. Mircea Eliade. Assisi: Citadela Editrice.
  • Dadosky, John Daniel. 2004. The Structure of Religious Knowing: Encountering the Sacred in Eliade and Lonergan. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0791460614
  • Dudley, Guilford. 1977. Religion on Trial: Mircea Eliade and His Critics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 0877221022
  • Ellwood, Robert S. 1999. The Politics of Myth: A Study of C. G. Jung, Mircea Eliade and Joseph Campbell. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 079144306X
  • McCutcheon, Russell T. 2005. Manufacturing Religion: The Discourse on Sui Generis Religion and the Politics of Nostalgia. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195166639
  • Olson, Carl. 1992. The Theology and Philosophy of Eliade: A Search for the Centre. New York: St. Martin’s Press. ISBN 0312079060
  • Rennie, Bryan S. 1996. Reconstructing Eliade: Making Sense of Religion. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0791427641
  • Rennie, Bryan S. (ed.). 2000. Changing Religious Worlds: The Meaning and End of Mircea Eliade. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0791447308
  • Simion, Eugen. 2001. Mircea Eliade: A Spirit of Amplitude. Boulder: East European Monographs.
  • Strenski, Ivan. 1987. Four Theories of Myth in Twentieth-Century History: Cassirer, Eliade, Levi Strauss and Malinowski. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.
  • Ţurcanu, Florin. 2003. Mircea Eliade. Le prisonnier de l’histoire. Paris: Editions La Découverte.
  • Wasserstrom, Steven M. 1999. Religion after Religion: Gershom Scholem, Mircea Eliade, and Henry Corbin at Eranos. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Цитаты

Дополнительные действия
5 ноября 2018 г., 14:12 johannajarvinen выписал(а) цитату из книгиМиф о вечном возвращении автора Мирча Элиаде
ee3cc5f48a38bcfbccf67386f635b475.jpg Миф о вечном возвращении Мирча Элиаде 4.5
Добавить

Купить

…необходимо сопоставить “исторического человека” современности, который все знает о самом себе и желает быть творцом истории, с человеком традиционных цивилизаций, который, <…> занимал по отношению к истории негативную позицию. Человек традиционных цивилизаций либо периодически уничтожал историю, либо подвергал ее переоценке, всегда находя универсально-исторические модели и архетипы, либо, наконец, приписывал ей метаисторический смысл (циклическая теория, эсхатологические значения и т. п.), — но в любом случае он не признавал ценности исторического события самого по себе, или, говоря другими словами, не рассматривал это историческое событие в качестве специфической категории своего собственного существования. <…> мы обязаны бросить беглый взгляд на проблему человека, который сознает самого себя лицом историческим, поскольку современный мир в настоящее время еще не целиком воспринял «историцизм»; более того: мы являемся свидетелями борьбы двух концепций — архаической, которую мы назвали бы архетипической и неисторической, и современной, постгегельянской, которая считает себя исторической. Мы ограничимся изучением лишь одного, но при этом самого существенного аспекта данной проблемы — тех решений, которые предлагаются в перспективе историцизма современному человеку с целью помочь ему вынести все более мощное давление современной истории.

Развернуть мне нравится 0понравилось Добавить в коллекцию 1 добавил в коллекцию добавить в избранное 0 в избранном
Узнайте мнение
друзей — войдите
47 просмотров

Дополнительные действия
5 ноября 2018 г., 13:53 johannajarvinen выписал(а) цитату из книгиМиф о вечном возвращении автора Мирча Элиаде
ee3cc5f48a38bcfbccf67386f635b475.jpg Миф о вечном возвращении Мирча Элиаде 4.5
Добавить

Купить

…буддизм, подобно йоге и всем прочим индийским концепциям завоевания свободы, ни на одну секунду не ставит под сомнение «нормальность» самой муки. <…> здесь страдание считается «иллюзорным» лишь в той степени, в какой иллюзорна вся Вселенная — ни полное муки человеческое существование, ни Вселенная не являются реалъностями в онтологическом смысле этого термина. За исключением материалистических школ Локаята и Чарвака, отрицающих существование и «души», и «Бога», и считающих бегство от боли и стремление к наслаждению единственной достойной человека целью, вся остальная Индия придавала вполне определенные смысл и функцию страданиям любого типа — космическим, психологическим или историческим. Карма гарантирует, что все происходящее в мире находится в полном соответствии с нерушимым законом причин и следствий.

Развернуть мне нравится 0понравилось Добавить в коллекцию 1 добавил в коллекцию добавить в избранное 0 в избранном 45 просмотров

Notes

  1. ↑ Pals 1996, 159.
  2. ↑ Ross 1996.
  3. ↑ Ornea 1995, 150–151, 153.
  4. ↑ Ornea 1995, 174–175.
  5. ↑ Eliade 1933, in Ornea 1995, 167.
  6. ↑ Ornea 1995, 207.
  7. ↑ Ornea 1995, Chapter IV.
  8. ↑ Eliade 1933, in Ornea 1995, 32.
  9. ↑ Eliade 1936, in Ornea 1995, 32.
  10. ↑ Eliade 1937, in Ornea 1995, 53
  11. ↑ Eliade 1937, in Ornea 1995, 53.
  12. ↑ Eliade 1927, in Ornea 1995, 147.
  13. ↑ Eliade 1937, in Ornea 1995, 203.
  14. ↑ Eliade 1937, in Ornea 1995, 203.
  15. ↑ Ornea 1995, 209.
  16. ↑ To this end, Eliade wrote that “[In his place], I would not be grinding it in Russia” in an attempt to encourage Antonescu to see reason.
  17. ↑ Ross 1996.
  18. ↑ Ribas 2000.
  19. România Liberă, passim. September–October 1944, in Frunză 1990.
  20. ↑ Frunză 1990, 448–449.
  21. ↑ Pals 1996, 160.
  22. ↑ Eliade’s Patterns in Comparative Religion, quoted in Pals 1996, 161.
  23. ↑ Mircea Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Religion (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1961), p. 165.
  24. ↑ Mircea Eliade, “Methodological Remarks on the Study of Religious Symbolism,” in The History of Religions: Essays on Methodology, edited by Joseph Kitagawa and Mircea Eliade (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959), p. 95.
  25. ↑ Pals 1996, 178–79.
  26. ↑ Eliade quoted in Pals 1996, 180.
  27. ↑ Pals 1996, 189.
  28. ↑ Eliade, “Methodological Remarks on the Study of Religious Symbolism,” pp. 88-89.
  29. ↑ Mircea Eliade, Patterns in Comparative Religion, translated by Rosemary Sheed (London: Sheed and Ward, 1958), p. 450.
  30. ↑ Pals 1996, 190.
  31. ↑ Guildford Dudley III, Religion on Trial: Mircea Eliade and His Critics (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1977), p. 63.
  32. ↑ Ornea 1995, 408-409, 412.
  33. ↑ Sebastian 2000, passim.
  34. ↑ Sebastian 2000, 238.
  35. ↑ It was popular prejudice in the late 1930s to claim that Ukrainian Jews in the Soviet Union had obtained Romanian citizenship illegally after passing the border into Maramureş and Bukovina. In 1938, this accusation served as an excuse for the Octavian Goga/A. C. Cuza government to suspend and review all Jewish citizenship guaranteed after 1923, rendering it very difficult to regain (Ornea 1995, 391). Eliade’s mention of Bessarabia probably refers to an earlier period, being his interpretation of a pre-Greater Romania process.
  36. ↑ Eliade, 1936, in Ornea 1995, 412–413.
  37. ↑ Eliade, 1937, in Ornea 1995, 413.
  38. ↑ Ornea 1995, 206; Ornea is skeptical of these explanations, given both the long period of time spent between the article’s publication and Eliade’s retraction (almost fifty years), and especially the fact that the article itself, despite the haste in which it would have been written, has remarkably detailed references to many articles written by Eliade in various papers over a period of time.
  39. ↑ Volovici 1991, 104–105, 110–111, 120–126, 134.
  40. ↑ Alexandra Laignel-Lavastine, quoted in Cristiano Grottanelli’s “Fruitful Death: Mircea Eliade and Ernst Jünger on Human Sacrifice, 1937-1945,” Numen 52(1), 2005, 116–145.
  41. Rennie 1996, 149–177; Ross 1996.

The scholarEdit

  1. Redirect Template:expand-section

In his work on the history of religion, Eliade is most highly regarded for his writings on Shamanism, Yoga and cosmological myths. He has had a decisive influence on many scholars, for instance . In Romania, Eliade’s legacy in the field of history of religions is mirrored by the journal (founded 1997). An endowed chair in the History of Religions at the University of Chicago Divinity School was named after Eliade in recognition of his wide contribution to the research on this subject. The current (and first incumbent) holder of this chair is , Eliade’s colleague from 1978 until his death.

Eliade’s thinking was in part influenced by Rudolf Otto, , and the writings of the ( and ).[32] For instance, Eliade’s The Sacred and the Profane partially builds on Otto’s The Idea of the Holy to show how religion emerges from the experience of the sacred, and myths of time and nature.

His Treatise on the History of Religions was praised by French philologist for its coherence and ability to synthesize diverse and distinct mythologies.[33]

His scholarly work includes a well known study of Shamanism, Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy, and an analysis of Yoga as a concrete search for freedom from human limitations, Yoga, Immortality and Freedom. In Cosmos and History: The Myth of the Eternal Return Eliade provides an analysis of time as heterogeneous for the religious and homogeneous for the non-religious and a conception of the “terror of history” and the ability to continually “reactualize” the mythical age. He calls this reactualization of In the mythical age the “eternal return” (see ).

Several researchers have criticized Eliade’s work as having no empirical support. Thus, he is said to have “failed to provide an adequate methodology for the history of religions and to establish this discipline as an empirical science”,[34] though the same critics admit that “the history of religions should not aim at being an empirical science anyway”.[35] Specifically, his claim that the sacred is a structure of human consciousness is distrusted as not being empirically provable: “no one has yet turned up the basic category sacred“.[36] Also, there has been mention of his tendency to ignore the social aspects of religion.[37]

Although his scholarly work was never subordinated to his early political beliefs, the school of thought he was associated with in Romania, namely , as well as the works of Evola he continued to draw inspiration from, have thematic links to Fascism;[38] Marcel Tolcea has argued that, through Evola’s particular interpretation of Guénon’s works, Eliade kept a traceable connection with ideologies in his academic contribution.[39] After the 1960s, he, together with Evola, , and other intellectuals, offered support to ‘s controversial , part of the intellectual trend.[40]

Notably, Eliade was also preoccupied with the cult of and its supposed monotheism.[41] His conclusions regarding history (arguing that was superficial inside ) have been celebrated by contemporary partisans of nationalism.[42]

2007 will be the 100th anniversary of the birth of Mircea Eliade, and 2005 was the 50th anniversary of the death of . To evaluate the legacy of Eliade and Wach to the discipline of the history of religions, The University of Chicago chose the intermediary year, 2006, to hold a two-day conference to reflect upon their academic contributions and their political lives in their social and historical contexts, and also the relationship between the works and the lives.

ReferencesEdit

  • Gregory D. Alles, “Review of Changing Religious Worlds: The Meaning and End of Mircea Eliade by Brian Rennie”, in Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 71, p.466-469
  • ,
  • , in , Volume 2, No. 6 – September/October 1992
  • , Istorie şi mit în conştiinţa românească, Humanitas, Bucharest (tr. History and Myth in Romanian Consciousness, Central European University Press, 2001)
  • Paul Cernat, Ion Manolescu, Angelo Mitchievici, Ioan Stanomir, Explorări în comunismul românesc, Polirom, Iaşi, 2004: Paul Cernat, “Îmblânzitorul României Socialiste. De la Bîrca la Chicago şi înapoi”, p.346-348
  • (Romanian)
, review of Marcel Tolcea, Eliade, ezotericul, in Observatorul Cultural
  • Victor Frunză, Istoria stalinismului în România, Humanitas, Bucharest, 1990
  • Roger Griffin, The Nature of Fascism, Routledge UK, London, 1993
  • (Romanian)
 on  page of the 
  • Douglas R. Holmes, Integral Europe: fast-capitalism, multiculturalism, neofascism, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2000
  • , Anii treizeci. Extrema dreaptă românească, Ed. Fundaţiei Culturale Române, Bucharest, 1995
  • Bryan S. Rennie, Reconstructing Eliade: making sense of religion, State University of New York, New York, ISBN 0-7914-2763-3
  • (Spanish)
  • Mac Linscott Ricketts, “Review of Religion on Trial: Mircea Eliade and His Critics by Guilford Dudley III”, in Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 46, No. 3 (Sep. 1978), p.400-402
  • , Journal, 1935-1944: The Fascist Years
  • (Romanian)
, review of Florin Ţurcanu, Mircea Eliade. Le prisonnier de l'histoire, in Observatorul Cultural
  • Leon Volovici, Nationalist Ideology and Antisemitism: The Case of Romanian Intellectuals in the 1930s, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1991

Critical works about EliadeEdit

  • Allen, Douglas. 2002. Myth and Religion in Mircea Eliade. London: Routledge.
  • Carrasco, David and Law, Jane Marie (eds.). 1985. Waiting for the Dawn. Boulder: Westview Press.
  • Culianu, Ioan Petru. 1978. Mircea Eliade. Assisi: Citadela Editrice
  • Dadosky, John D. 2004. The Structure of Religious Knowing: Encountering the Sacred in Eliade and Lonergan. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  • Dudley, Guilford. 1977. Religion on Trial: Mircea Eliade & His Critics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
  • Ellwood, Robert S. 1999. The Politics of Myth: A Study of C. G. Jung, Mircea Eliade and Joseph Campbell. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  • McCutcheon, Russell T. 1997. Manufacturing Religion: The Discourse on Sui Generis Religion and the Politics of Nostalgia. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Olson, Carl. 1992. The Theology and Philosophy of Eliade: A Search for the Centre. New York: St Martins Press.
  • Rennie, Bryan S. 1996. Reconstructing Eliade: Making Sense of Religion. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  • Rennie, Bryan S. (ed.). 2001. Changing Religious Worlds: The Meaning and End of Mirce Eliade. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  • Simion, Eugen. 2001. Mircea Eliade: A Spirit of Amplitude. Boulder: East European Monographs.
  • Strenski, Ivan. 1987. Four Theories of Myth in Twentieth-Century History: Cassirer, Eliade, Levi Strauss and Malinowski. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.
  • Tolcea, Marcel. 2002. Eliade, ezotericul. Timişoara: Editura Mirton.
  • Ţurcanu, Florin. 2003. Mircea Eliade. Le prisonnier de l’histoire. Paris: Editions La Découverte.
  • Wasserstrom, Steven M. 1999. Religion after Religion: Gershom Scholem, Mircea Eliade, and Henry Corbin at Eranos. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Критические работы, посвященные Элиадеправить

Издания на русском языке[править]

  • Дугин А. Мирча Элиаде — Вечное возвращение // Finis Mundi, № 5.
  • Иванов Вяч. Время и возвращение // Иностранная литература, 1989, № 8.
  • Ревуненкова Е. Проблемы шаманизма в трудах М. Элиаде // Актуальные проблемы этнографии и современная зарубежная наука. Под ред. Маретина Ю. и Путилова Б. — Л., Наука, 1979, С. 241—258.
  • Стефанов Ю. Конечное уравнение, или Ночь духов // в кн.: Стефанов Ю. Трещина между мирами. Литература и Традиция. — М., Текст, 2002.
  • А. П. Забияко. Сакральное как категория феноменологии религии М. Элиаде
  • В. Лихачев. Сакральный космос юденфрай: Мирча Элиаде и «еврейский вопрос»
  • О. К. Михельсон. История религий и Новый гуманизм М. Элиаде
  • С. В. Пахомов. Элиаде и йога (Вступ. статья к книге М. Элиаде «Йога: бессмертие и свобода»)
  • Эмиль Чоран. Мирча Элиаде

Работы, не издававшиеся на русском языке[]

  • Davíd Carrasco and Jane Marie Law Waiting for the dawn (Ожидая рассвет)
  • Eugen Simion Mircea Eliade: a spirit of amplitude (Мирча Элиаде: дух простора)
  • Bryan S. Rennie Reconstructing Eliade: making sense of religion (Восстанавливая Элиаде: понимание религии)
  • Steven M. Wasserstrom Religion after religion (Религия после религии)
  • Guilford Dudley Religion on trial: Mircea Eliade & his critics (Испытание религии: Мирча Элиаде и его критика)
  • John D. Dadosky The structure of religious knowing (Структура религиозного знания)
  • Carl Olson The theology and philosophy of Eliade: a search for the centre (Теология и философия Элиаде: поиск центра)

Life and works

Eliade studied philosophy at the University of Bucharest, receiving an M.A. in 1928 with a thesis on Italian Renaissance philosophy from Marsilio Ficino to Giordano Bruno. After studying in Calcutta primarily under the Sanskrit scholar Surendranath Dasgupta (1928–30), he spent six months practicing Yoga at Rishikesh under the direction of Swami Shivananda (1930–31). Returning to Bucharest, he wrote a dissertation on the comparative history of techniques of Yoga, for which he received a Ph.D. in philosophy in 1933. Appointed assistant to Nae Ionescu, the scholar he most admired, Eliade joined the faculty of the University of Bucharest and taught courses in philosophy, religion, and Hinduism and Buddhism. In the 1930s he became an influential literary figure in Romania, especially after publication of his hugely successful novel Maitreyi (1933; Bengal Nights). During World War II, Eliade served as cultural attaché with the Royal Legation of Romania in London (1940) and in Lisbon (1941–45).

Starting in the late 1980s, scholarship on Eliade and his legacy has often focused on charges and countercharges about his political life and views, especially his political writings and involvement in Romania in the 1930s and in London and Portugal during the war. Critics charge that Eliade hid his past in which he was a sympathizer, participant, and defender of right-wing, antidemocratic, intolerant, xenophobic, violent Romanian fascism and anti-Semitism. Defenders, while conceding youthful indiscretions and some indefensible writings, argue that the political charges have been exaggerated and should not negate the significance of Eliade’s scholarly and literary contributions.

In the decade after the war Eliade lived in Paris, where he established his international reputation as a historian, morphologist, and phenomenologist of religion. In 1956–57 he was appointed visiting professor and then professor and chairman of the history of religions department at the University of Chicago, where he taught until his retirement in 1983.

An extremely prolific writer, Eliade spoke of his “dual vocation” as a fiction writer and scholar. He viewed his literary and scholarly concerns as autonomous but complementary and as necessary for his spiritual and artistic creativity. His works of fiction were written in Romanian, and his major scholarly works were written in French; some 35 of his books have been published in English.

While in Paris Eliade wrote four major scholarly works: Traité d’histoire des religions (1949; Patterns in Comparative Religion), which signalled his arrival as a major scholar of religion; Le Mythe de l’éternel retour (1949; The Myth of the Eternal Return, also translated as Cosmos and History), which he described as his favourite book; Le Chamanisme et les techniques archaïques de l’extase (1951; Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy); and Le Yoga: Immortalité et liberté (1954; Yoga: Immortality and Freedom). His three-volume Histoire des croyances et des idées religieuses (1978–85; A History of Religious Ideas) was another major scholarly achievement. Eliade also founded and coedited the journal History of Religions (1961) and served as editor in chief of the 16-volume The Encyclopedia of Religion (1987).

Eliade wrote many popular books, such as The Sacred and the Profane (1959), and published collections of articles, mostly on myth and symbolism, in books such as Myth and Reality (1963) and The Quest (1969). His most ambitious and challenging novel is Forêt interdite (1955; The Forbidden Forest), which he considered his literary masterpiece. This novel takes place between 1936 and 1948 and includes some of Eliade’s views on the historical tragedy and destiny of the Romanian people. It also reveals Eliade’s key mythical and symbolic transhistorical structures and meanings and the central belief that religious meanings are hidden and camouflaged in contemporary Western experiences.

Legacy

Eliade was often described in the popular press and by scholars as the world’s most influential historian of religion. Although he had numerous followers, his approach to religion, myth, and symbol remains controversial. While having areas of scholarly specialization—as seen in his studies of Yoga, shamanism, alchemy, and archaic religion—Eliade was always an extreme generalist, comparativist, and synthesizer. Many scholars attacked his scholarship as subjective and unscientific. They charged that he made uncritical generalizations; ignored rigorous procedures of verification; favoured archaic and Asian religions (especially Hinduism) and nature-oriented peasant-based phenomena of “cosmic religion” (including “cosmic Christianity”); and interjected metaphysical and theological assumptions into his studies.

Eliade was particularly attracted to this premodern peasant orientation and worldview, with its “archaic ontology” that was essentially nontemporal, nonhistorical, cyclical, and aimed at the religious integration and harmony of nature and the cosmos. In this regard, he interpreted a “cosmic religion” of Romanian and other Christian peasants that had little interest in the dominant, Christian, theological, historical focus and instead found sacred Christian revelations in nature and the cosmic patterns and cycles.

Critics charge that Eliade devalued and distorted historical religion and nonarchaic, modern religion. Defenders often respond that most critics, with their social scientific analysis, are too narrowly specialized and reductionistic, reducing and explaining away significant religious meaning. Some defenders submit that Eliade is not most valuable as some empirical, historical specialist but rather as a creative literary figure who raised significant philosophical and theological concerns and who provided insight into contemporary existential and historical crises and the need for cultural renewal and a new .

References

  • Cernat, Paul. 2004. “Îmblânzitorul României Socialiste. De la Bîrca la Chicago şi înapoi.” In Cernat, Paul, Ion Manolescu, Angelo Mitchievici, and Ioan Stanomir. Explorări în comunismul românesc, Vol. 1. Iaşi: Polirom, 346–348. ISBN 973-681-817-9
  • Dudley, Guildford the III. 1977. Religion on Trial: Mircea Eliade and His Critics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 0877221022
  • Eliade, Mircea. 1959. “Methodological Remarks on the Study of Religious Symbolism.” In Joseph Kitagawa and Mircea Eliade (eds.). The History of Religions: Essays on Methodology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Eliade, Mircea. 1954. The Myth of the Eternal Return. Translated from the French by Willard R. Trask. Bollingen Series XLVI. New York: Pantheon Books. ASIN B000H0UH0G
  • Eliade, Mircea. 1968. The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Religion. New York: Harvest Books. ISBN 015679201X
  • Eliade, Mircea. 1999. Patterns in Comparative Religion. Translated by Rosemary Sheed. London: Sheed and Ward. ISBN 0722079451
  • Frunză, Victor. 1990. Istoria stalinismului în România. Bucharest: Humanitas.
  • Grottanelli, Cristiano. 2005. “Fruitful Death: Mircea Eliade and Ernst Jünger on Human Sacrifice, 1937–1945.” Numen 52(1):116–145.
  • Ornea, Z. 1995. Anii treizeci. Extrema dreaptă românească. Bucharest: Ed. Fundaţiei Culturale Române.
  • Pals, Daniel L. 1996. Seven Theories of Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195087259
  • Rennie, Bryan S. 1996. Reconstructing Eliade: Making Sense of Religion. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-2763-3
  • Ross, Kelley L. 1996. “Mircea Eliade” on Friesian.com. Retrieved October 10, 2008.
  • Sebastian, Mihail. 2000. Journal, 1935–1944: The Fascist Years. Translated from the Romanian by Patrick Camiller; with an introduction and notes by Radu Ioanid. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee.
  • Volovici, Leon. 1991. Nationalist Ideology and Antisemitism: The Case of Romanian Intellectuals in the 1930s. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • . Retrieved October 10, 2008.

NotesEdit

  1. Steinhardt, in Handoca
  2. Eliade, Memorii 1907-1960
  3. Ross
  4. Ross
  5. Ornea, p.150-151, 153
  6. Ornea, p.174-175
  7. Eliade, 1933, in Ornea, p.167
  8. Ornea, p.207
  9. Ornea, Chapter IV
  10. Eliade, 1933, in Ornea, p.32
  11. Eliade, 1936, in Ornea, p.32
  12. Eliade, 1937, in Ornea, p.53
  13. Eliade, 1937, in Ornea, p.53
  14. Eliade, 1927, in Ornea, p.147
  15. Eliade, 1935, in Ornea, p.128
  16. Eliade, 1934, in Ornea, p.136
  17. Eliade, 1933, in Ornea, p.178, 186
  18. Eliade, 1937, in Ornea, p.203
  19. Eliade, 1937, in Ornea, p.203
  20. Ornea, p.209
  21. Eliade, Salazar, in “”, , October 13, 2002
  22. Eliade, in Handoca
  23. Eliade, in Handoca; Ross
  24. Ribas
  25. ↑ 25.025.1
  26. Ribas
  27. România Liberă, passim September-October 1944, in Frunză
  28. Frunză, p.448-449
  29. Eliade, 1970, in Cernat, “Îmblânzitorul…”, p.346
  30. Simonca
  31. Simonca
  32. Cernat, “Eliade în cheie ezoterică”
  33. Eliade, Tratat de Istorie a Religiilor: Introducere, Humanitas, Bucharest, 1992
  34. Ricketts
  35. Ricketts
  36. Alles (Alles’ italics)
  37. Simonca
  38. Cernat, “Eliade în cheie ezoterică”; Griffin, passim
  39. Cernat, “Eliade în cheie ezoterică”
  40. Griffin, p.173; Holmes, p.78
  41. Boia, p.152; Eliade, “Zalmoxis, The Vanishing God”, in Slavic Review, Vol. 33, No. 4 (December 1974), p.807-809
  42. Boia, p.152; Simonca
  43. Ornea, p.408-409, 412
  44. Sebastian, passim
  45. Sebastian, p. 238
  46. Eliade, in Handoca
  47. It was popular prejudice in the late 1930s to claim that in the Soviet Union had obtained Romanian citizenship illegally after passing the border into and Bukovina. In 1938, this accusation served as an excuse for the – government to suspend and review all Jewish citizenship guaranteed after 1923, rendering it very difficult to regain (Ornea, p.391). Eliade’s mention of Bessarabia probably refers to an earlier period, being his interpretation of a pre- process.
  48. Eliade, 1936, in Ornea, p.412-413
  49. Eliade, 1937, in Ornea, p.413
  50. Ornea, p.206; Ornea is sceptical of these explanations, given both the long period of time spent before Eliade gave them, and especially the fact that the article itself, despite the haste in which it ought to have been written, has remarkably detailed references to many articles written by Eliade in various papers over a period of time.
  51. Dumitru G. Danielopol, in Simonca
  52. Ionesco, 1945, in Ornea, p.184
  53. Ornea, p.210
  54. Antohi; Anton
  55. Volovici, p.104–105, 110–111, 120–126, 134
  56. Rennie p.149—177; Ross
  57. Ornea, p.202, 208-210, 239-240; Simonca
  58. Simonca